Adenosine-associated delivery systems

Mehdi Kazemzadeh-Narbat, Nasim Annabi, Ali Tamayol, Rahmi Oklu, Amyl Ghanem, Ali Khademhosseini

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


Adenosine is a naturally occurring purine nucleoside in every cell. Many critical treatments such as modulating irregular heartbeat (arrhythmias), regulation of central nervous system (CNS) activity and inhibiting seizural episodes can be carried out using adenosine. Despite the significant potential therapeutic impact of adenosine and its derivatives, the severe side effects caused by their systemic administration have significantly limited their clinical use. In addition, due to adenosines extremely short half-life in human blood (<10 s), there is an unmet need for sustained delivery systems to enhance efficacy and reduce side effects. In this article, various adenosine delivery techniques, including encapsulation into biodegradable polymers, cell-based delivery, implantable biomaterials and mechanical-based delivery systems, are critically reviewed and the existing challenges are highlighted.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)580-596
Number of pages17
JournalJournal of Drug Targeting
Issue number7-8
StatePublished - Sep 14 2015


  • Adenosine
  • controlled drug delivery
  • controlled release
  • drug delivery
  • drug targeting
  • nanoparticles
  • targeted drug delivery

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmaceutical Science


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