Acute inhibition of the endogenous xanthine oxidase improves renal hemodynamics in hypercholesterolemic pigs

Elena Daghini, Alejandro R. Chade, James D. Krier, Daniele Versari, Amir Lerman, Lilach O. Lerman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations


Hypercholesterolemia (HC), a major risk factor for onset and progression of renal disease, is associated with increased oxidative stress, potentially causing endothelial dysfunction. One of the sources of superoxide anion is xanthine oxidase (XO), but its contribution to renal endothelial function in HC remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis that XO modulates renal hemodynamics and endothelial function in HC pigs. Four groups (n = 23) of female domestic pigs were studied 12 wk after either normal (n = 11) or HC diet (n = 12). Oxidative stress was assessed by plasma isoprostanes and oxidized LDL, and the XO system by plasma uric acid, urinary xanthine, and renal XO expression (by immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry). Renal hemodynamics and function were studied with electron beam-computed tomography before and after endothelium-dependent (ACh) and -independent (sodium nitroprusside) challenge, during a concurrent intrarenal infusion of either oxypurinol or saline (n = 5-6 in each group). HC showed elevated oxidative stress, higher plasma uric acid (23.8 ± 3.8 vs. 6.2 ± 0.8 μM/mM creatinine, P = 0.001), lower urinary xanthine, and greater renal XO expression compared with normal. Inhibition of XO in HC significantly improved the blunted responses to ACh of cortical perfusion (13.5 ± 12.1 and 37.2 ± 10.6%, P = 0.01 and P = not significant vs. baseline, respectively), renal blood flow, and glomerular filtration rate; restored medullary perfusion; and improved the blunted cortical perfusion response to sodium nitroprusside. This study demonstrates that the endogenous XO system is activated in swine HC. Furthermore, it suggests an important role for XO in regulation of renal hemodynamics, function, and endothelial function in experimental HC.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)R609-R615
JournalAmerican Journal of Physiology - Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2006


  • Endothelium
  • Oxidative stress
  • Oxypurinol
  • Uric acid

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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