ACR appropriateness criteria acute trauma to the foot

Laura W. Bancroft, Mark J. Kransdorf, Ronald Adler, Marc Appel, Francesca D. Beaman, Stephanie A. Bernard, Michael A. Bruno, Molly E. Dempsey, Ian B. Fries, Viviane Khoury, Bharti Khurana, Timothy J. Mosher, Catherine C. Roberts, Michael J. Tuite, Robert J. Ward, Adam C. Zoga, Barbara N. Weissman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations


This ACR Appropriateness Criteria article offers imaging triage guidance for several variants of patients presenting with acute foot trauma. Patients meeting inclusion criteria for the Ottawa Rules should undergo a 3-view radiographic series. Diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy should undergo radiography, even though they do not meet the Ottawa Rules inclusion criteria. Patients with suspected midfoot and/or Lisfranc injury should undergo 3-view radiographs with weight bearing on at least the anterior-posterior view. Patients with suspected Lisfranc injury and normal radiographs should be considered for MRI and CT on a case-by-case basis. MRI or ultrasound could confirm cases of suspected acute tendon rupture. Radiography is the initial imaging modality for suspected plantar plate injury after metatarsal-phalangeal joint injury. Weight-bearing anterior-posterior, lateral, and sesamoid axial views may detect proximal migration of the hallux sesamoids. Ultrasound or MRI can directly evaluate the capsuloligamentous complex, specifically the plantar plate. Radiography can detect radiopaque penetrating foreign bodies, and ultrasound can be helpful in detecting those that are nonradiopaque. The ACR Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every 3 years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures, by the panel. In instances in which evidence is lacking or is not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging and treatment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)575-581
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of the American College of Radiology
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 1 2015


  • Appropriateness Criteria
  • Ottawa Rules
  • acute trauma
  • adult
  • child
  • foot trauma

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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