Objectives: Patients with clonal cytopenia of undetermined significance (CCUS) are at increased risk of developing myeloid neoplasia (MN). We evaluated whether a simple flow cytometry immunophenotyping (FCIP) assay could differentiate the risk of development of MN in patients with CCUS. Methods: Bone marrow aspirates were assessed by FCIP panel in a cohort of 80 patients identified as having CCUS based on next-generation sequencing or cytogenetics from March 2015 to May 2020, with available samples. Flow cytometric assay included CD13/HLA-DR expression pattern on CD34-positive myeloblasts; CD13/CD16 pattern on maturing granulocytic precursors; and aberrant expression of CD2, CD7, or CD56 on CD34-positive myeloblasts. Relevant demographic, comorbidity, and clinical and laboratory data, including the type and extent of genetic abnormalities, were extracted from the electronic health record. Results: In total, 17 (21%) patients with CCUS developed MN over the follow-up period (median survival follow-up, 28 months [95% confidence interval, 19-31]). Flow cytometry immunophenotyping abnormalities, including the aberrant pattern of CD13/HLA-DR expression, as detected at the time of the diagnosis of CCUS, were significantly associated with risk of developing MN (hazard ratio, 2.97; P =. 006). Additional FCIP parameters associated with the development of MN included abnormal expression of CD7 on myeloblasts and the presence vs absence of any FCIP abnormality. Conclusions: A simple FCIP approach that includes assessment of CD13/HLA-DR pattern on CD34-positive myeloblasts can be useful in identifying patients with CCUS at higher risk of developing MN.
- Flow cytometry
- Myeloid neoplasia
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine