A review of neurostimulation for epilepsy in pediatrics

Keith Starnes, Kai Miller, Lily Wong-Kisiel, Brian Nils Lundstrom

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


Neurostimulation for epilepsy refers to the application of electricity to affect the central nervous system, with the goal of reducing seizure frequency and severity. We review the available evidence for the use of neurostimulation to treat pediatric epilepsy, including vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), responsive neurostimulation (RNS), deep brain stimulation (DBS), chronic subthreshold cortical stimulation (CSCS), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). We consider possible mechanisms of action and safety concerns, and we propose a methodology for selecting between available options. In general, we find neurostimulation is safe and effective, although any high quality evidence applying neurostimulation to pediatrics is lacking. Further research is needed to understand neuromodulatory systems, and to identify biomarkers of response in order to establish optimal stimulation paradigms.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number283
JournalBrain Sciences
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 2019


  • Chronic subthreshold cortical stimulation
  • Deep brain stimulation
  • Drug-resistant epilepsy
  • Neuromodulation
  • Pediatric neurostimulation
  • Responsive neurostimulation
  • Transcranial direct current stimulation
  • Transcranial magnetic stimulation
  • Vagus nerve stimulation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Neuroscience


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