A randomized clinical trial of nicotine lozenge for smokeless tobacco use

Jon O. Ebbert, Herbert H. Severson, Ivana T. Croghan, Brian G. Danaher, Darrell R. Schroeder

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

24 Scopus citations


Introduction: Smokeless tobacco (ST) use is associated with adverse health consequences, and effective treatments are needed. Pilot data suggest that 4-mg nicotine lozenge decreases tobacco craving and nicotine withdrawal symptoms among ST users. Methods: We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled multicenter clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy of 12 weeks of 4-mg nicotine lozenge for ST use. Results: We randomized 270 participants (136 active lozenge, 134 placebo). No significant differences were observed between the groups in biochemically confirmed all tobacco abstinence rates at Week 12 (36% lozenge vs. 27.6% placebo; odds ratio [OR] 1.5, 95% CI 0.7-2.1; p = .138). However, the 4-mg nicotine lozenge increased self-reported all tobacco abstinence (44.1% vs. 29.1%; OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.2-3.2; p = .011) and self-reported ST abstinence (50.7% vs. 34.3%; OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.2-3.2; p = .013) compared with placebo at the end of treatment (Week 12). Following target quit date (TQD), nicotine withdrawal symptoms decreased significantly with time (time effect = -.022 per day, SE = .003; p < .001) and was significantly lower for the active lozenge (treatment effect = .213, SE = .071; p = .003). Tobacco craving also decreased significantly following TQD (time effect = -.071, SE = .006; p < .001) and was lower for the active nicotine lozenge (treatment effect = -.452, SE = .164; p = .006). Discussion: The 4-mg nicotine lozenge increased self-reported but not biochemically confirmed tobacco abstinence rates at 3 months. The use of the 4-mg nicotine lozenge is associated with decreased nicotine withdrawal symptoms and tobacco craving.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1415-1423
Number of pages9
JournalNicotine and Tobacco Research
Issue number12
StatePublished - 2009

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


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