Recent reports have described cerebral venous oxygen desaturation during and after rewarming from hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass. Additionally, patients undergoing normothermic cardiopulmonary bypass may be at higher risk for neurologic injury. This study was designed to determine whether patients undergoing normothermic cardiopulmonary bypass are at increased risk for sustained cerebral desaturation. Fifty-two patients undergoing first-time coronary artery bypass grafting were randomized to receive normothermic (37° C, n = 26) or hypothermic (27° C, n = 26) cardiopulmonary bypass. The anesthetic was standardized and alpha-stat pH management was used. A 4F oximetric catheter was placed in the jugular bulb and cerebral venous and radial arterial blood were sampled. Oxygen partial pressure and saturation were measured at six intervals from cerebral venous blood and from radial arterial blood. Patients receiving normothermic cardiopulmonary bypass had lesser values of oxygen partial pressure and saturation in cerebral venous blood than patients subjected to hypothermia during the first 40 minutes of bypass. Cerebral venous desaturation (oxygen saturation in cerebral venous blood of 50 % or less) was observed in 54 % of patients in the normothermic group and 12 % of patients in the hypothermic group during cardiopulmonary bypass. In the normothermic group, cerebral desaturation occurred primarily in early bypass (14 of 26). The three episodes of desaturation in the hypothermic group occurred during rewarming. During cardiopulmonary bypass, the arteriovenous oxygen content difference was greater in the normothermic group than in that in the hypothermic group, suggesting higher oxygen consumption. Differences in glucose utilization during early cardiopulmonary bypass between the groups was also detected. One patient in the hypothermic group had an embolic stroke and subsequently died. There were no other perioperative strokes or deaths in the study population. The present study demonstrates that patients undergoing normothermic cardiopulmonary bypass are at greater risk for cerebral desaturation. Because it is a global assessment, cerebral venous oxygen saturation may be insensitive to focal ischemic events. It remains to be seen whether these differences in cerebral physiologic states translate into differences in clinical outcome.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine