A phase Ib study of Oraxol (oral paclitaxel and encequidar) in patients with advanced malignancies

Wen Wee Ma, Jenny J. Li, Nilofer S. Azad, Elaine T. Lam, Jennifer R. Diamond, Grace K. Dy, Mateusz Opyrchal, Jay Zhi, Douglas Kramer, Wing Kai Chan, David Cutler, Rudolf Kwan, Alex A. Adjei, Antonio Jimeno

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose: Oraxol is an oral formulation of paclitaxel administered with a novel, minimally absorbed P-glycoprotein inhibitor encequidar (HM30181A). This phase Ib study was conducted to determine the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) of Oraxol administered at a fixed dose for up to 5 consecutive days in patients with advanced malignancies. Methods: Part 1 of this study utilized a 3 + 3 dose-escalation design to determine the MTD of oral paclitaxel 270 mg plus oral encequidar 15 mg administered daily. Dose escalation was achieved by increasing the number of consecutive dosing days per week (from 2 to 5 days per week). Dosing occurred for 3 consecutive weeks out of a 4-week cycle. Part 2 treated additional patients at the MTD to determine tolerability and recommended phase II dose (RP2D). Adverse events, tumor responses, and pharmacokinetic profiles were assessed. Results: A total of 34 patients (n = 24 in Part 1, n = 10 in Part 2) received treatment. The MTD of Oraxol was determined to be 270 mg daily × 5 days per week per protocol definition and this was declared the RP2D. The most common treatment-related adverse events were fatigue, neutropenia, and nausea/vomiting. Hypersensitivity-type reactions were not observed. Of the 28 patients evaluable for response, 2 (7.1%) achieved partial response and 18 (64.3%) achieved stable disease. Pharmacokinetic analysis showed rapid absorption of paclitaxel when administered orally following encequidar. Paclitaxel daily exposure was comparable following 2–5 days dose levels. Conclusion: The oral administration of encequidar with paclitaxel was safe, achieved clinically relevant paclitaxel levels, and showed evidence of anti-tumor activity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)7-17
Number of pages11
JournalCancer chemotherapy and pharmacology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jul 2022


  • Oral paclitaxel
  • Oraxol
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Phase I

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Toxicology
  • Pharmacology
  • Cancer Research
  • Pharmacology (medical)


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