A modified Lodwick-Madewell grading system for the evaluation of lytic bone lesions

Jamie T. Caracciolo, H. Thomas Temple, G. Douglas Letson, Mark J. Kransdorf

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

29 Scopus citations


OBJECTIVE. Lodwicks well-established grading system of lytic bone lesions has been widely used in predicting growth rate for lytic bone lesions. We applied a Modified Lodwick- Madewell Grading System as an alternative means to categorize lytic bone tumors into those with low, moderate, and high risks of malignancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS. A retrospective review of the radiographs of 183 bone lesions was performed. Cases were selected to include a broad range of benign and malignant tumors. Readers applied our Modified Lodwick-Madewell Grading System, and consensus was reached in all cases. This modified system consists of grade I, which is composed of grades IA and IB as listed in the Lodwick system; grade II, which is grade IC in the Lodwick system; and grade III, which is composed of IIIA (changing margination), IIB (moth-eaten and permeative patterns), and IIIC (radiographically occult). Grading was correlated with the final diagnosis. RESULTS. Of the 183 tumors, 81 were classified as grade I, 54 as grade II, and 48 as grade III. When correlating grade with pathology, we found that 76 of 81 (94%) grade I lesions were benign and 39 of 48 grade III lesions (81%) were malignant. A nearly equal number of grade II lesions proved to be benign (29/54; 54%) and malignant (28/54; 53%). CONCLUSION. By expanding Lodwicks grading system to include two additional patterns of disease described by Madewell and colleagues (changing margination and radiographically occult) and by reclassifying them into three distinct grades, we propose a modified systemthe Modified Lodwick-Madewell Grading System. Application of this system shows correlation of tumor grade with tumor biologic activity and with risk of malignancy: Grade I lesions are usually benign, grade II lesions carry moderate risk of malignancy, and grade III lesions possess a high likelihood of malignancy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)150-156
Number of pages7
JournalAmerican Journal of Roentgenology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jul 2016


  • Bone neoplasms
  • Classification
  • Grading system
  • Lodwick
  • Radiographs
  • Risk of malignancy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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