A Dosimetric Comparison of Lattice, Brass, and Proton Grid Therapy Treatment Plans

Michael P. Grams, Hok Seum Wan Chan Tseung, Shima Ito, Yan Zhang, Dawn Owen, Sean S. Park, Safia K. Ahmed, Ivy A. Petersen, Michael G. Haddock, William S. Harmsen, Daniel J. Ma

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose: Our purpose was to dosimetrically compare volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) lattice radiation therapy (LRT), brass, and proton grid therapy planning techniques and suggest potential clinical applications for each. Methods and Materials: Four plans delivering 20 Gy in 1 fraction were created for each of 22 patients. Brass and proton grid plans used a single static field and the same beam angle. Proton grid plans used the same beam size and spacing as the brass block. Two VMAT LRT plans were generated for each patient: one with 1-cm diameter lattice points spaced 2-cm center-to-center (2-cm VMAT) and another with 1.5-cm diameter lattice points spaced 3-cm center-to-center (3- cm VMAT). Maximum, minimum, mean, and equivalent uniform dose and the dose to 90%, 50%, 20%, 10%, and 5% (D90%[%], D50%[%], etc) of gross tumor volume (GTV) were reported. D10%/D90% characterized dose heterogeneity. Normal tissue dose was generalized by the maximum dose and volume in cubic centimeters of tissue outside the GTV receiving 30% and 50% of prescription (body-GTV V30%[cm3]; body-GTV V50%[cm3]). Results: VMAT LRT plans delivered the highest maximum GTV doses while brass and proton plans delivered higher D5%(%), D10%(%), and D20%(%) values. D50%(%), D90%(%), and minimum dose varied little between plan types. Proton and brass plans had the highest dose heterogeneity. Two-centimeter VMAT and brass grid plans had the highest mean GTV doses. Two-centimeter VMAT plans had the highest equivalent uniform dose, followed by 3-cm VMAT, brass, and proton plans. VMAT LRT plans exhibited the lowest normal tissue maximum and body GTV V30%(cm3) and body GTV V50%(cm3) values. Conclusions: An in-depth comparison of target and normal tissue dosimetric parameters for common photon and proton grid therapy planning techniques was made. Strengths of each plan type were noted leading to general recommendations on usage.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)e442-e452
JournalPractical Radiation Oncology
Issue number5
StatePublished - Sep 1 2022

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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