A Delphi Method for Development of a Barrett's Esophagus Question Prompt List as a Communication Tool for Optimal Patient-physician Communication

Afrin N. Kamal, Chih Hung Jason Wang, George Triadafilopoulos, David L. Diehl, Christopher Ducoin, Christy M. Dunst, Gary Falk, Prasad G. Iyer, David A Katzka, Vani J.A. Konda, Raman Muthusamy, Fouad Otaki, Douglas Pleskow, Joel H. Rubenstein, Nicholas J. Shaheen, Prateek Sharma, Michael S. Smith, Joseph Sujka, Lee L. Swanstrom, Roger P. TatumArvind J. Trindade, Michael Ujiki, Sachin Wani, John O. Clarke

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background Methods: The question prompt list content was derived through a modified Delphi process consisting of 3 rounds. In round 1, experts provided 5 answers to the prompts "What general questions should patients ask when given a new diagnosis of Barrett's esophagus"and "What questions do I not hear patients asking, but given my expertise, I believe they should be asking?"Questions were reviewed and categorized into themes. In round 2, experts rated questions on a 5-point Likert scale. In round 3, experts rerated questions modified or reduced after the previous rounds. Only questions rated as "essential"or "important"were included in Barrett's esophagus question prompt list (BE-QPL). To improve usability, questions were reduced to minimize redundancy and simplified to use language at an eighth-grade level (Fig. 1). Results: Twenty-one esophageal medical and surgical experts participated in both rounds (91% males; median age 52 years). The expert panel comprised of 33% esophagologists, 24% foregut surgeons, and 24% advanced endoscopists, with a median of 15 years in clinical practice. Most (81%), worked in an academic tertiary referral hospital. In this 3-round Delphi technique, 220 questions were proposed in round 1, 122 (55.5%) were accepted into the BE-QPL and reduced down to 76 questions (round 2), and 67 questions (round 3). These 67 questions reached a Flesch Reading Ease of 68.8, interpreted as easily understood by 13 to 15 years olds. Conclusions: With multidisciplinary input, we have developed a physician-derived BE-QPL to optimize patient-physician communication. Future directions will seek patient feedback to distill the questions further to a smaller number and then assess their usability.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)131-135
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of clinical gastroenterology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 3 2024


  • Barrett's esophagus
  • patient-physician communication
  • question prompt list

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Gastroenterology


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