A comprehensive review of Strongyloides stercoralis infection after solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

Cybele Lara R. Abad, Eric Bhaimia, Audrey N. Schuetz, Raymund R. Razonable

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: We reviewed the scientific literature to gain insight on the epidemiology and outcome of Strongyloides stercoralis infections after transplantation. Methods: CINAHL, PUBMED, and OVID/MEDLINE were reviewed from inception through March 31, 2022 using key words Strongyloides and transplantation. Results: Our review identified 108 episodes of Strongyloides infection among 91 solid organ transplant (SOT) and 15 hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients. Median time to infection was 10.8 (range,.14–417) and 8.8 (range, 0–208) weeks after SOT and HCT, respectively. Gastrointestinal symptoms were frequent (86/108 [79.6%]), while skin rash (22/108 [20.3%]) and fever (31/103 [30%]) were less common. Peripheral eosinophilia was observed in half of patients (41/77 [53.2%]). Bacteremia (31/59 [52.5%]) was frequently due to Gram-negative organisms (24/31 [77.4%]). Abnormal chest radiologic findings were reported in half (56/108 [51.9%]). The majority had hyperinfection syndrome (97/108 [89.8%]) while disseminated strongyloidiasis was less common (11/108 [10.2%]). Thirty-two cases were categorized as donor-derived infection (DDI), with donors (23/24 [95.8%]) who had traveled to or lived in endemic areas. Median time to DDI was 8 weeks (range.5–34.3 weeks) after transplantation. Treatment consisted of ivermectin (n = 26), a benzimidazole (n = 27), or both drugs (n = 28). There was high all-cause mortality (48/107, 44.9%) and a high Strongyloides-attributable mortality (32/49, 65.3%). Conclusions: Strongyloidiasis should be strongly considered among recipients with epidemiologic risk factors for infection, even in the absence of eosinophilia or rash. A policy that provides guidance on pro-active screening is needed, to ensure preventive measures are provided to recipients at increased risk.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere14795
JournalClinical Transplantation
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 2022


  • Strongyloides
  • hematopoietic stem cell transplant
  • hyperinfection syndrome
  • ivermectin
  • solid organ transplant
  • strongyloidiasis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Transplantation


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