A cognitive behavioral smoking abstinence intervention for adults with chronic pain: A randomized controlled pilot trial

W. Michael Hooten, Cynthia O. Townsend, J. Taylor Hays, Kaye L. Ebnet, Thomas R. Gauvin, Jessica M. Gehin, Heidi J. Laures, Christi A. Patten, David O. Warner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Scopus citations


Current evidence suggests it may be difficult for patients with chronic pain to quit smoking and, based on previous formative work, a 7-session individual and group-based cognitive behavioral (CB) intervention was developed. The primary aim of this randomized controlled pilot trial was to test the hypothesis that abstinence at month 6 would be greater among patients with chronic pain who received the CB intervention compared to a control condition. Upon admission to a 3-week interdisciplinary pain treatment (IPT) program, patients were randomized to receive the CB intervention (n= 30) or the control condition (n= 30). The 7-day point prevalence of self-reported smoking status was assessed at week 3 (upon completion of the 3-week IPT program) and at month 6 in an intent-to-treat analysis. At week 3, 30% (n= 9) of patients in the CB condition were abstinent from smoking compared to 10% (n= 3) in the control group (P= .104). At month 6, 20% (n= 6) of patients who received the CB intervention were abstinent compared to none in the control group (P= .024). At week 3, a significant group by time interaction effect was found where the CB patients experienced greater improvements in self-efficacy from baseline compared to the control group (P= .002). A greater proportion of patients randomized to the CB group completed the IPT program (P= .052). The findings of this pilot trial suggest that integration of a CB-based smoking abstinence intervention into ongoing pain therapy may be an effective treatment for smokers with chronic pain.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)593-599
Number of pages7
JournalAddictive Behaviors
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2014


  • Chronic pain
  • Cognitive behavioral
  • Randomized controlled trial
  • Smoking abstinence

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Toxicology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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