20-year survival after radical prostatectomy as initial treatment for cT3 prostate cancer

Christopher R. Mitchell, Stephen A. Boorjian, Eric C. Umbreit, Laureano J. Rangel, Rachel E. Carlson, R. Jeffrey Karnes

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

51 Scopus citations


Study Type - Therapy (case series) Level of Evidence 4 What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Despite a lack of randomised controlled trials, most men with locally advanced prostate cancer are recommended to undergo external beam radiotherapy (EBRT), often combined with long-term androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT). Many of these men are not offered radical prostatectomy (RP) by their treating urologist. Additionally, it is know that EBRT with long-term ADT does provide good cancer control (88% at 10 years). We have previously published intermediate-term follow-up of a large series of men treatment with RP for cT3 prostate cancer. We report long-term follow-up of a large series of men treated with RP as primary treatment for cT3 prostate cancer. Our study shows that with long-term follow-up RP provides excellent oncological outcomes even at 20 years. While most men do require a multimodal treatment approach, many men can be managed successfully with RP alone. OBJECTIVE To present long-term survival outcomes after radical prostatectomy (RP) for patients with cT3 prostate cancer, as the optimal treatment for patients with clinical T3 prostate cancer is debated. PATIENTS AND METHODS We identified 843 men who underwent RP for cT3 tumours between 1987 and 1997. Survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to evaluate the association of clinicopathological features with outcome RESULTS The median (range) postoperative follow-up was 14.3 (0.1-23.5) years. Down-staging to pT2 disease occurred in 26% (223/843) at surgery. Local recurrence-free, systemic progression-free and cancer-specific survival for men with cT3 prostate cancer after RP was 76%, 72%, and 81%, respectively, at 20 years. On multivariate analysis, increasing RP Gleason score (hazard ratio [HR] 1.8; P= 0.01), non-diploid chromatin content (HR 1.8; P= 0.01), positive surgical margins (HR 2.1; P= 0.007), and seminal vesicle invasion (HR 2.1; P= 0.005) were associated with a significant risk of prostate cancer death, while a more recent year of surgery was associated with a decreased risk of cancer-specific mortality (HR 0.88; P= 0.01) CONCLUSIONS RP affords accurate pathological staging and may be associated with durable cancer control for cT3 prostate cancer, with 20 years of follow-up presented here. RP as part of a multimodal treatment strategy therefore remains a viable treatment option for patients with cT3 tumours.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1709-1713
Number of pages5
JournalBJU international
Issue number11
StatePublished - Dec 2012


  • clinical T3
  • extraprostatic extension
  • prostate cancer
  • radical prostatectomy
  • seminal vesicle invasion

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology


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