Visual Spatial Learning Test: Normative Data and Further Validation

James F. Malec, Robert J. Ivnik, Glenn E. Smith, Eric G. Tangalos, Ronald C. Petersen, Emre Kokmen, Leonard T. Kurland

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

38 Scopus citations


The Visual Spatial Learning Test (VSLT) is a nonverbal memory test that requires minimal language and motor abilities. Normative data are presented for VSLT measures of learning, delayed memory, and intrusion errors for 455 individuals ages 56-97 years. Our normative sample is an open community sample that was not screened for memory impairment using psychometric procedures. Validity of these normative data was then assessed by application to a group of patients with dementia. Sequential application of cutoff scores for intrusion errors, learning, and delayed memory correctly identified 87.9% of demented and 78.9% of normal subjects. The VSLT appears to be a test of recognition and cued memory that may be appropriately included in a psychometric battery for the assessment of dementia.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)433-441
Number of pages9
JournalPsychological Assessment
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 1992

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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