Unsedated Transnasal Endoscopy for Preoperative Examination of Bariatric Patients: a Prospective Study

Amaury Teixeira Xavier, Arthur V. Alvares, Prasad G. Iyer, Vitor N. Arantes

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Background: Esophagogastroduodenoscopy is a preoperative examination commonly required for candidates to bariatric surgery (BS). Overweight individuals have a greater risk of cardiorespiratory complications during endoscopy under sedation. This study aimed to investigate the feasibility, tolerance, and cardiovascular stress of transnasal endoscopy (TNE) without sedation in obese patients eligible for BS. Methods: This prospective study enrolled obese adult patients with indication for BS that consented to undergo unsedated preoperative TNE. All examinations were carried out in an outpatient center. The outcomes assessed were endoscopic findings, procedural success, patients’ tolerance according to a visual analogic scale, cardiovascular stress estimated by double product (i.e., systolic blood pressure × heart rate) and adverse events. Statistical analyses were used to compare each patient’s double product among different examination periods. Results: Ninety-four patients (77.6% female) completed the study, with an average body mass index (BMI) of 53 kg/m2 (range, 35–73.4 kg/m2). There were 63 super-obese individuals (67%), with BMI > 50 kg/m2. In 93 patients (98.9%), unsedated TNE was successfully completed up to the second part of the duodenum. TNE failed in one patient. Tolerance was rated as excellent or good in 95.7%. Minimal cardiovascular stress was noted in obese individuals, whereas the double product remained stable throughout the procedure in super-obese patients. Three patients (3.2%) had self-limited epistaxis. Conclusions: Unsedated TNE for preoperative endoscopic evaluation of obese patients is feasible, safe, and well tolerated and should be preferentially considered when examining super-obese patients.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)238-243
Number of pages6
JournalObesity Surgery
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2020


  • Endoscopy without sedation
  • Obesity
  • Transnasal endoscopy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Nutrition and Dietetics


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