Trends in cause of death after percutaneous coronary intervention

Daniel B. Spoon, Peter J. Psaltis, Mandeep Singh, David R. Holmes, Bernard J. Gersh, Charanjit S. Rihal, Ryan J. Lennon, Issam D. Moussa, Robert D. Simari, Rajiv Gulati

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

99 Scopus citations


BACKGROUND - : The impact of changing demographics on causes of long-term death after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) remains incompletely defined. METHODS AND RESULTS - : We evaluated trends in cause-specific long-term mortality after index PCI performed at a single center from 1991 to 2008. Deaths were ascertained by scheduled prospective surveillance. Cause was determined via telephone interviews, medical records, autopsy reports, and death certificates. Competing-risks analysis of cause-specific mortality was performed using 3 time periods of PCI (1991-1996, 1997-2002, and 2003-2008). Final follow-up was December 31, 2012. A total of 19 077 patients survived index PCI hospitalization, of whom 6988 subsequently died (37%, 4.48 per 100 person-years). Cause was determined in 6857 (98.1%). Across 3 time periods, there was a 33% decline in cardiac deaths at 5 years after PCI (incidence: 9.8%, 7.4%, and 6.6%) but a 57% increase in noncardiac deaths (7.1%, 8.5%, and 11.2%). Only 36.8% of deaths in the recent era were cardiac. Similar trends were observed regardless of age, extent of coronary disease, or PCI indication. After adjustment for baseline variables, there was a 50% temporal decline in cardiac mortality but no change in noncardiac mortality. The decline in cardiac mortality was driven by fewer deaths from myocardial infarction/sudden death (P<0.001) but not heart failure (P=0.85). The increase in noncardiac mortality was primarily attributable to cancer and chronic diseases (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS - : This study found a marked temporal switch from predominantly cardiac to predominantly noncardiac causes of death after PCI over 2 decades. The decline in cardiac mortality was independent of changes in baseline clinical characteristics. These findings have implications for patient care and clinical trial design.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1286-1294
Number of pages9
Issue number12
StatePublished - Mar 25 2014


  • cardiovascular diseases
  • coronary disease
  • death
  • percutaneous coronary intervention

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Physiology (medical)


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