Trends in Cardiovascular Implantable Electronic Device Insertion Between 1988 and 2018 in Olmsted County

Vaibhav R. Vaidya, Roshini Asirvatham, Gurukripa N. Kowlgi, Ming Yan Dai, Jordan J. Cochuyt, David O. Hodge, Abhishek J. Deshmukh, Yong Mei Cha

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objectives: This study sought to describe trends in cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED) insertion over the past 3 decades in Olmsted County. Background: Trends in CIED insertion in the United States have not been extensively studied. Methods: The Rochester Epidemiology Project is a medical records linkage system comprising the records of all residents of Olmsted County from 1966 to the present. CIED insertion between 1988 and 2018 was determined using International Classification of Diseases-Ninth Revision, International Classification of Diseases-10th Revision, and Current Procedural Terminology codes. Age- and sex-adjusted incidence rates, adjusted to the 2010 US White population, were calculated. Trends in incidence over time, across age groups, and between sex are estimated using Poisson regression models. Results: The age- and sex-adjusted incidence of device implants for the study period were as follows: overall CIED: 82.4 (95% CI: 79.2-85.6); permanent pacemaker (PPM): 62.9 (95% CI: 60.0-65.7); implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD): 14.0 (95% CI: 12.6-15.3); and cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT): 5.6 (95% CI: 4.7-6.4) per 100,000 per year. The overall incidence of CIED insertion increased between 1988 to 1993 and 2000 to 2005 and then decreased between 2000 to 2005 and 2012 to 218 (P < 0.0001). PPM and ICD insertion incidence followed these trends, whereas the incidence of CRT insertion increased between 2000 to 2005 and 2012 to 2018. CIED insertion incidence increased with age (P < 0.0001). CIED insertion incidence was greater in men (116.3 vs 57.3 per 100,000 per year in men vs women; P < 0.0001). The overall survival of CRT recipients improved (P = 0.0044). Conclusions: The incidence values for PPM and ICD implants are decreasing, while the incidence of CRT implants is increasing. CIEDs are increasingly inserted in the elderly, men, and patients with higher comorbidities.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)88-100
Number of pages13
JournalJACC: Clinical Electrophysiology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2022


  • cardiac pacemaker
  • cardiovascular implantable electronic devices
  • epidemiology
  • implantable cardioverter-defibrillator
  • resynchronization therapy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Physiology (medical)


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