Treatment of Ruptured and Nonruptured Aneurysms Using a Semisolid Iodinated Embolic Agent

Zefu Zhang, Hassan Albadawi, Richard J. Fowl, Izzet Altun, Marcela A. Salomao, Jama Jahanyar, Brian W. Chong, Joseph L. Mayer, Rahmi Oklu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Saccular aneurysms (SAs) are focal outpouchings from the lateral wall of an artery. Depending on their morphology and location, minimally invasive treatment options include coil embolization, flow diverter stents, stent-assisted coiling, and liquid embolics. Many drawbacks are associated with these treatment options including recanalization, delayed healing, rebleeding, malpositioning of the embolic or stent, stent stenosis, and even rupture of the SA. To overcome these drawbacks, a nanoclay-based shear-thinning hydrogel (STH) is developed for the endovascular treatment of SAs. Extensive in vitro testing is performed to optimize STH performance, visualization, injectability, and endothelialization in cell culture. Femoral artery saccular aneurysm models in rats and in pigs are created to test stability, efficacy, immune response, endothelialization, and biocompatibility of STH in both ruptured and unruptured SA. Fluoroscopy and computed tomography imaging consistently confirmed SA occlusion without recanalization, migration, or nontarget embolization; STH is also shown to outperform coil embolization of porcine aneurysms. In pigs with catastrophic bleeding due to SA rupture, STH is able to achieve instant hemostasis rescuing the pigs in long-term survival experiments. STH is a promising semisolid iodinated embolic agent that can change the standard of medical practice and potentially save lives.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number2108266
JournalAdvanced Materials
Issue number10
StatePublished - Mar 10 2022


  • aneurysm
  • embolization
  • endovascular
  • nanoclay

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Materials Science
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering


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