Transesophageal echocardiography: State-of-the art and future directions

Bijoy K. Khandheria, Jaek Oh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

33 Scopus citations


Transesophageal echocardiography complements transthoracic examination in 5-10% of patients referred to the echocardiographic laboratory. Clinical indications for performing this procedure are continually evolving. The semi-invasive nature of this procedure necessitates that it be judiciously used and that trained personnel undertake the procedure. Complications of the procedure need to be kept in mind. Future directions in the development of this technology involve newer, muttiplanar, muttifrequency transducers, digital archiving and retrieval, wide-field imaging, and 3-dimensional reconstruction. For the present, transthoracic echocardiography must remain the primary echocardiographic window imaging the heart, with defined clinical applications for transesophageal echocardiography.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)H61-H75
JournalThe American journal of cardiology
Issue number20
StatePublished - Jun 18 1992

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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