Although Streptococcus agalactiae periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is not as prevalent as staphylococcal PJI, invasive S. agalactiae infection is not uncommon. Here, RNA-seq was used to perform transcriptomic analysis of S. agalactiae PJI using fluid derived from sonication of explanted arthroplasties of subjects with S. agalactiae PJI, with results compared to those of S. agalactiae strain NEM316 grown in vitro. A total of 227 genes with outlier expression were found (164 upregulated and 63 downregulated) between PJI sonicate fluid and in vitro conditions. Functional enrichment analysis showed genes involved in mobilome and inorganic ion transport and metabolism to be most enriched. Genes involved in nickel, copper, and zinc transport, were upregulated. Among known virulence factors, cyl operon genes, encoding β-hemolysin/cytolysin, were consistently highly expressed in PJI versus in vitro. The data presented provide insight into S. agalactiae PJI pathogenesis and may be a resource for identification of novel PJI therapeutics or vaccines against invasive S. agalactiae infections.
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