Training fellows in neonatal tele-resuscitation using a simulation-based mastery learning model

Stephanie C. Mavis, Beth L. Kreofsky, Melody Y. Ouk, William A. Carey, Jennifer L. Fang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Neonatal tele-resuscitation uses real-time, audio–video telemedicine to connect neonatologists with community hospital care teams during advanced neonatal resuscitations. While telemedicine continues to expand, best practices for training fellows in tele-resuscitation are not known. Objective: We aimed to develop a neonatal tele-resuscitation curriculum using a simulation-based mastery learning model that provides neonatal-perinatal medicine (NPM) fellows with the knowledge, skills, and behaviors needed to lead tele-resuscitations. Methods: Using technology-enhanced simulation education and a mastery learning model, we developed a longitudinal pilot tele-resuscitation curriculum. From 07/2018 to 03/2021, NPM fellows participated in the curriculum, which included individualized telemedicine learning, observing and leading simulated tele-resuscitations, and finally, performing clinical (non-simulated) tele-resuscitations. A performance assessment tool was developed to assess competency through eight questions mapped to the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) core competencies, with responses on a 1 to 5 scale (1 = critical deficiencies; 5 = competence of an expert). Results: Four NPM fellows participated in the curriculum, progressing through the curriculum at an individualized pace. Median scores on the three learning modules were 96–100%. Fellows participated in variable number of simulated tele-resuscitations based on when mastery was achieved (2–3 supervised simulations per fellow, 1–4 unsupervised simulations per fellow). In total, eighteen simulated tele-resuscitations (eight unsupervised, 10 supervised) and one clinical tele-resuscitation were conducted. Twenty-five performance assessments were completed. Assessment scores across the ACGME competencies were consistently high, with mean scores ranging from 4.2-4.6, with 4 equating to ‘ready for unsupervised practice’ and 5 equating to ‘competence of an expert’. Conclusions: As telemedicine use continues to expand, curricula that improve learners’ comfort with and proficiency in tele-resuscitation are essential. A simulation-based mastery learning model may be one approach that affords learners gradual exposure to and mastery of complex tele-resuscitation skills and behaviors.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number100172
JournalResuscitation Plus
StatePublished - Dec 2021


  • Curriculum
  • Mastery learning
  • Neonatal-perinatal medicine
  • Teleneonatology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Emergency Medicine
  • Emergency
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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