The pharmacists' implementation of pharmaceuticaI care (PIPC) model

Folakemi T. Odedina, Charles D. Hepler, Richard Segal, David Miller

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Purpose. Study purpose was to develop a theoretical framework that will explain pharmacists' behavior relative to the provision of pharmaceutical care. The model was developed from four attitude models by testing their predictive validity relative to pharmaceutical care implementation. Four hypotheses and one research question were investigated to identify determinants of behavioral intention and behavior. Methods. 617 community pharmacists in the state of Florida, U.S.A., were surveyed twice using mail survey methodology to collect data. The first survey assessed community pharmacists' attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, past behavior recency, self-efficacies, instrumental beliefs and affect. The second survey assessed pharmacists' behavior relative to the implementation of pharmaceutical care. After establishing reliability and validity of measures, regression analysis was used to test hypotheses and research question investigated. Results. The Pharmacists' Implementation of Pharmaceutical Care (PIPC) model developed postulates that (i) behavior is directly determined by past behavior recency, behavioral intention and perceived behavioral control; (ii) psychological appraisal processes-instrumental beliefs, self-efficacies, and affect toward means-influence behavior through past behavior recency; and (iii) behavioral intention is determined by attitude, social norm and perceived behavioral control. Conclusions. The PIPC model provides a formal scientifically validated theoretical framework which can be used to design successful intervention for pharmaceutical care implementation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)135-144
Number of pages10
JournalPharmaceutical research
Issue number2
StatePublished - 1997


  • Attitude
  • Behavioral choice models
  • Community pharmacists
  • Expectancy-value models
  • Goal-directed behavior
  • Pharmaceutical care theory

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmaceutical Science
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Pharmacology (medical)


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