The Mechanism and Natural History of Mitral Regurgitation in Cardiac Sarcoidosis

Daniel Sykora, Kathleen A. Young, Mohamed Y. Elwazir, John P. Bois, Courtney A. Arment, Panithaya Chareonthaitawee, Nikhil Kolluri, Omar F.Abou Ezzeddine, Leslie T. Cooper, Andrew N. Rosenbaum

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Cardiac sarcoidosis (CS) is an infl/ammatory cardiomyopathy that can present with mitral regurgitation (MR), but few studies describe the mechanisms and natural history of MR in CS. We queried an institutional registry of 512 patients with CS for moderate or greater MR at diagnosis. Baseline demographic and echocardiography (TTE) data were collected. MR was classified by Carpentier type. Positron emission tomography was analyzed for 2-deoxy-2-[fluorine-18] fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) avidity of anterolateral and posteromedial papillary muscles. Follow-up TTE and positron emission tomography imaging of patients treated with immunosuppression was analyzed for MR severity and FDG avidity changes. Fifty-four patients were identified. Mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 39.3%, effective regurgitant orifice 0.34 cm2, and MR regurgitant volume 46.3 ml. Carpentier type I was the most common MR mechanism (46.3%). Forty-one patients had follow-up TTE (median follow-up 1.7 years, interquartile range 2.6 years). Evaluating preprocedural follow-up TTE only, MR severity was significantly reduced, with 37% of patients showing reduction by at least 1 severity grade (p = 0.04). With postprocedural TTE included, 61% of patients showed alleviation of MR severity with mean decrease in grade − 0.98 (p <0.001). Sixty-eight percent of patients had anterolateral/posteromedial FDG avidity. Papillary muscle FDG avidity resolved in 80% of patients (n = 20, median follow-up 1.6 years, interquartile range 2.5 years). In conclusion, Carpentier type I functional MR is the most common MR mechanism in CS. MR severity and papillary muscle FDG avidity decrease after treatment, and MR resolution is further strengthened by procedural intervention in a minority of patients, suggesting an overall favorable natural history of MR in CS.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)84-91
Number of pages8
JournalAmerican Journal of Cardiology
StatePublished - Mar 15 2023

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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