The extravascular implantable cardioverter-defibrillator: The pivotal study plan

Ian Crozier, David O'Donnell, Lucas Boersma, Francis Murgatroyd, Jaimie Manlucu, Bradley P. Knight, Ulrika Maria Birgersdotter-Green, Christophe Leclercq, Amy Thompson, Robert Sawchuk, Sarah Willey, Christopher Wiggenhorn, Paul Friedman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Transvenous implantable cardioverter defibrillators (TV ICD) provide life-saving therapy for millions of patients worldwide. However, they are susceptible to several potential short- and long- term complications including cardiac perforation and pneumothorax, lead dislodgement, venous obstruction, and infection. The extravascular ICD system's novel design and substernal implant approach avoids the risks associated with TV ICDs while still providing pacing features and similar generator size to TV ICDs. Study Design: The EV ICD pivotal study is a prospective, multicenter, single-arm, nonrandomized, premarket clinical study designed to examine the safety and acute efficacy of the system. This study will enroll up to 400 patients with a Class I or IIa indication for implantation of an ICD. Implanted subjects will be followed up to approximately 3.5 years, depending on when the patient is enrolled. Objective: The clinical trial is designed to demonstrate safety and effectiveness of the EV ICD system in human use. The safety endpoint is freedom from major complications, while the efficacy endpoint is defibrillation success. Both endpoints will be assessed against prespecified criteria. Additionally, this study will evaluate antitachycardia pacing performance, electrical performance, extracardiac pacing sensation, asystole pacing, appropriate and inappropriate shocks, as well as a summary of adverse events. Conclusion: The EV ICD pivotal study is designed to provide clear evidence addressing the safety and efficacy performance of the EV ICD System.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2371-2378
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of cardiovascular electrophysiology
Issue number9
StatePublished - Sep 2021


  • ICD
  • anterior mediastinum
  • defibrillation
  • extravascular
  • subcutaneous
  • substernal

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Physiology (medical)


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