The Evaluation and Treatment of Graves Ophthalmopathy

Marius N. Stan, James A. Garrity, Rebecca S. Bahn

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

47 Scopus citations


Optimum care of the patient with Graves ophthalmopathy (GO) is achieved through teamwork between the endocrinologist and ophthalmologist, with input from ancillary specialists as needed. Clinical evaluation should include determination of both the severity and the activity of the disease. It is important to assess early in the evaluation the impact of the disease on the patient's quality of life and their priorities and expectations regarding management. Once this information has been gathered, careful discussion between patient and physicians can define the management plan. This article reviews the pathophysiology, epidemiology, evaluation, and management of GO.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)311-328
Number of pages18
JournalMedical Clinics of North America
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 2012


  • Graves disease
  • Graves ophthalmopathy
  • Radioactive iodine
  • Thyrotropin receptor autoantibodies

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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