The association of acute COVID-19 infection with Patient Safety Indicator-12 events in a multisite healthcare system

Shivang Bhakta, Benjamin D. Pollock, Young M. Erben, Michael A. Edwards, Katherine Heather Noe, Sean C. Dowdy, Pablo Moreno Franco, Jennifer B. Cowart

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Patient Safety Indicator (PSI)-12, a hospital quality measure designed by Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) to capture potentially preventable adverse events, captures perioperative venous thromboembolism (VTE). It is unclear how COVID-19 has affected PSI-12 performance. Objective: We sought to compare the cumulative incidence of PSI-12 in patients with and without acute COVID-19 infection. Design, Setting, and Participants: This was a retrospective cohort study including PSI-12-eligible events at three Mayo Clinic medical centers (4/1/2020-10/5/2021). Exposure, Main Outcomes, and Measures: We compared the unadjusted rate and adjusted risk ratio (aRR) for PSI-12 events among patients with and without COVID-19 infection using Fisher's exact χ2 test and the AHRQ risk-adjustment software, respectively. We summarized the clinical outcomes of COVID-19 patients with a PSI-12 event. Results: Our cohort included 50,400 consecutive hospitalizations. Rates of PSI-12 events were significantly higher among patients with acute COVID-19 infection (8/257 [3.11%; 95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.35%–6.04%]) compared to patients without COVID-19 (210/50,143 [0.42%; 95% CI, 0.36%–0.48%]) with a PSI-12 event during the encounter (p <.001). The risk-adjusted rate of PSI-12 was significantly higher in patients with acute COVID-19 infection (1.50% vs. 0.38%; aRR, 3.90; 95% CI, 2.12–7.17; p <.001). All COVID-19 patients with PSI-12 events had severe disease and 4 died. The most common procedure was tracheostomy (75%); the mean (SD) days from surgical procedure to VTE were 0.12 (7.32) days. Conclusion: Patients with acute COVID-19 infection are at higher risk for PSI-12. The present definition of PSI-12 does not account for COVID-19. This may impact hospitals' quality performance if COVID-19 infection is not accounted for by exclusion or risk adjustment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)350-357
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of hospital medicine
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2022

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Leadership and Management
  • Fundamentals and skills
  • Health Policy
  • Care Planning
  • Assessment and Diagnosis


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