Ten common questions (and their answers) on medical futility

Keith M. Swetz, Christopher M. Burkle, Keith H. Berge, William L. Lanier

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

24 Scopus citations


The term medical futility is frequently used when discussing complex clinical scenarios and throughout the medical, legal, and ethics literature. However, we propose that health care professionals and others often use this term inaccurately and imprecisely, without fully appreciating the powerful, often visceral, response that the term can evoke. This article introduces and answers 10 common questions regarding medical futility in an effort to define, clarify, and explore the implications of the term. We discuss multiple domains related to futility, including the biological, ethical, legal, societal, and financial considerations that have a bearing on definitions and actions. Finally, we encourage empathetic communication among clinicians, patients, and families and emphasize how dialogue that seeks an understanding of multiple points of view is critically important in preventing or attenuating conflict among the involved parties.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)943-959
Number of pages17
JournalMayo Clinic proceedings
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2014

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


Dive into the research topics of 'Ten common questions (and their answers) on medical futility'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this