Temporal encephalocele: An epileptogenic focus confirmed by direct intracranial electroencephalography

Shruti Agashe, Brian N. Lundstrom, Benjamin H. Brinkmann, Elson So, Gregory D. Cascino, Nicholas Gregg, W. Richard Marsh, Madeline Cross, Jamie J. Van Gompel, Kelsey M. Smith

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Several studies have suggested the epileptogenic potential of temporal encephaloceles. However, there is limited literature describing the results of intracranial EEG monitoring for patients with temporal encephaloceles. We describe a 19 year-old right-handed woman with drug-resistant epilepsy who presented with seizure onset at age 16 in the setting of a left temporal encephalocele where the seizure onset zone was confirmed to be the encephalocele via stereo EEG (sEEG). She had focal impaired awareness seizures occurring weekly that would progress to focal to bilateral tonic-clonic seizures monthly. Imaging showed a left anterior inferior temporal lobe encephalocele and a left choroidal fissure cyst that were stable on repeat imaging. Prolonged scalp recorded video EEG recorded seizures that showed either near simultaneous onset in the bitemporal head regions or a transitional left temporal sharp wave followed by maximum evolution in the left temporal region. Invasive monitoring with sEEG electrodes targeting primarily the left limbic system with one electrode directly in the encephalocele captured seizures with onset in the left temporal pole encephalocele. A limited resection was performed based on the results of the sEEG and except for one seizure in the immediate postop period in the setting of infection, patient remains seizure free at her 4 month follow up. This report describes a case of drug-resistant focal epilepsy where sEEG monitoring confirmed a temporal encephalocele to be the seizure onset zone without simultaneous onset at mesial temporal or other neocortical structures that were sampled. Our findings support the potential for epileptogenicity within an encephalocele with direct intracranial monitoring.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number100601
JournalEpilepsy and Behavior Reports
StatePublished - Jan 2023


  • Encephalocele
  • Intracranial EEG
  • Temporal lobectomy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Behavioral Neuroscience


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