Surgical management of transvenous lead-induced tricuspid regurgitation in adult and pediatric patients with congenital heart disease

Ying Huang, Joseph A. Dearani, Brian D. Lahr, Elizabeth H. Stephens, Malini Madhavan, Bryan C. Cannon, Hartzell V. Schaff

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate outcomes of surgical management of lead-induced tricuspid regurgitation (TR) in patients with congenital heart disease. Methods: We analyzed data of 54 consecutive patients who underwent tricuspid valve (TV) surgery from 1998 to 2015 for lead-induced TR. Primary end points, including mortality, TV reinterventions, and longitudinal TR measurements, were analyzed with the Kaplan–Meier method or with repeated measures proportional odds modeling. Results: The median age of patients was 48.2 years (interquartile range, 37.3-59.0 years); 31 (57.4%) were female; 2 (3.7%) were children. Thirty patients (55.6%) underwent TV repair and 24 (44.4%) had replacement, and 52 underwent concomitant cardiac procedures. Thirty-day mortality was 1.9% (repair: 3.3%, replacement: 0.0%). Five-year survival was 80.4% overall and 79.7% and 81.4% for the repair and replacement groups, respectively. In response to surgery, TR improved in both groups (each P < .001) but more with replacement than repair (P < .001); longitudinal analysis showed that TR trends observed early on favoring replacement were sustained across follow-up (P < .001). The model-estimated risk of moderate or severe TR at 5-year follow-up, conditional on having severe preoperative TR, was 74.4% for the repair and 10.7% for the replacement group. Five-year cumulative risk of TV reintervention was comparable for valve repair and replacement. Conclusions: Despite the need for concomitant cardiac procedures in most of the patients, early mortality was low after TV surgery. Survival and rate of TV reintervention were comparable for the repair and replacement groups. However, TV repair was associated with progressive TR during intermediate follow-up, especially in patients with severe preoperative TR.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2185-2193.e4
JournalJournal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2022


  • congenital heart disease
  • reintervention
  • survival
  • transvenous lead
  • tricuspid regurgitation
  • tricuspid valve surgery

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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