Structural organization of the human CaMIII calmodulin gene

Markus Koller, Bruno Schnyder, Emanuel E. Strehler

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

62 Scopus citations


The complete structural organization of the human calmodulin III gene has been determined. This gene specifies the mRNA represented by the previously reported cDNA ht6. The gene contains six exons spread over a total of approx. 10 kb of DNA. Its exon-intron organization is identical to that of the only known chicken calmodulin gene and to that of two of the three characterized rat calmodulin genes. As in many other genes encoding Ca2+ binding proteins, intron 1 separates the ATG initiation codon from the remainder of the coding region. The major and two minor sites of transcription initiation have been determined by primer extension and ribonuclease protection assays. The DNA sequence in the promoter and 5′ untranslated region is extremely GC-rich. No typical TATA and CAAT boxes are present upstream of the major transcriptional start site; however, a consensus CAAT box sequence is found further upstream and may play a role in transcriptional initiation from the minor start sites. Six sequence elements with high similarity to monkey SV40-like Sp1-binding regions are present in the putative promoter region, two of which contain perfect GGGCGG core sequences. The structure of the human calmodulin III gene promoter indicates that this gene belongs to a class of 'house-keeping' genes but that its level of expression may also be specifically regulated.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)180-189
Number of pages10
JournalBBA - Gene Structure and Expression
Issue number2
StatePublished - Oct 23 1990


  • (Human)
  • Calmodulin gene
  • Evolution
  • Gene structure
  • Promoter

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Structural Biology
  • Biophysics
  • Biochemistry
  • Genetics


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