Stone composition as a function of age and sex

John C. Lieske, Andrew D. Rule, Amy E. Krambeck, James C. Williams, Eric J. Bergstralh, Ramila A. Mehta, Thomas P. Moyer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

102 Scopus citations


Background and objectives Kidney stones are heterogeneous but often grouped together. The potential effects of patient demographics and calendar month (season) on stone composition are not widely appreciated. Design, setting, participants,&measurements The first stone submitted by patients for analysis to theMayo Clinic Metals Laboratory during 2010 was studied (n=43,545). Stones were classified in the following order: any struvite, any cystine, any uric acid, any brushite, majority ($50%) calcium oxalate, or majority ($50%) hydroxyapatite. Results Calcium oxalate (67%) was the most common followed by hydroxyapatite (16%), uric acid (8%), struvite (3%), brushite (0.9%), and cystine (0.35%). Men accounted for more stone submissions (58%) than women. However, women submitted more stones than men between the ages of 10–19 (63%) and 20–29 (62%) years. Women submitted the majority of hydroxyapatite (65%) and struvite (65%) stones, whereas men submitted the majority of calcium oxalate (64%) and uric acid (72%) stones (P,0.001). Although calcium oxalate stones were themost common type of stone overall, hydroxyapatite stoneswere the secondmost common before age 55 years, whereas uric acid stones were the second most common after age 55 years. More calcium oxalate and uric acid stones were submitted in the summer months (July and August; P,0.001), whereas the season did not influence other stone types. Conclusions It is well known that calcium oxalate stones are themost common stone type. However, age and sex have a marked influence on the type of stone formed. The higher number of stones submitted by women compared with men between the ages of 10 and 29 years old and the change in composition among the elderly favoring uric acid have not been widely appreciated. These data also suggest increases in stone risk during the summer, although this is restricted to calcium oxalate and uric acid stones.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2141-2146
Number of pages6
JournalClinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology
Issue number12
StatePublished - 2014

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Epidemiology
  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine
  • Nephrology
  • Transplantation


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