Standardizing total kidney volume measurements for clinical trials of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

Marie E. Edwards, Jaime D. Blais, Frank S. Czerwiec, Bradley J. Erickson, Vicente E. Torres, Timothy L. Kline

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Background The ability of unstandardized methods to track kidney growth in clinical trials for autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) has not been critically evaluated. Methods The Tolvaptan Efficacy and Safety Management of ADPKD and its Outcomes (TEMPO) 3:4 study involved baseline and annual magnetic resonance follow-up imaging yearly for 3 years. Total kidney volume (TKV) measurements were performed on these four time points in addition to the baseline imaging in TEMPO 4:4, initially by Perceptive Informatics (Waltham, MA, USA) using planimetry (original dataset) and for this study by the Mayo Translational PKD Center using semiautomated and complementary automated methods (sequential dataset). In the original dataset, the same reader was assigned to all scans of individual patients in TEMPO 3:4, but readers were reassigned in TEMPO 4:4. Two placebo-treated cohorts were included. In the first (n = 158), intervals between the end of TEMPO 3:4 and the start of TEMPO 4:4 scan visits ranged from 12 to 403 days; in the second (n = 95), the same scan (measured twice) visit was used for both. Results Growth rates in TEMPO 3:4 were similar in the original and sequential datasets (5.5 and 5.9%/year). Growth rates during the TEMPO 3:4 to TEMPO 4:4 interval were higher in the original (13.7%/year) but were not different in the sequential dataset (4.0%/year). Comparing volumes from the same images, TKVs showed a bias of 2.2% [95% confidence interval (CI) -5.2-9.7] in the original and -0.16% (95% CI -1.91-1.58) in the sequential dataset. Conclusions Despite using the same software, TKV and growth rate changes were present, likely due to reader differences in the transition from TEMPO 3:4 to TEMPO 4:4 in the original but not in the sequential dataset. Robust, standardized methods are essential in ADPKD trials to minimize errors in serial TKV measurements.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)71-77
Number of pages7
JournalClinical Kidney Journal
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 1 2019


  • polycystic kidney disease
  • primary endpoint
  • prognostic enrichment
  • randomized clinical trial
  • total kidney volume

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nephrology
  • Transplantation


Dive into the research topics of 'Standardizing total kidney volume measurements for clinical trials of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this