Objective: To evaluate the clinical features, pathologic features, and prevalence of human papilloma virus (HPV) in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the bladder. SCC of the bladder is known to be associated with conditions that cause chronic inflammation/irritation. The literature is inconsistent regarding the association of HPV with pure SCC of the bladder. Methods: A multi-institutional study identified cases of SCC of the bladder. Pure squamous histology and the absence of urothelial carcinoma in situ were required for inclusion. Clinical and pathologic features were collected, and tissues were evaluated for high-risk HPV using p16 immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Results: We identified 207 cases of SCC of the bladder. Risk factors for bladder cancer included smoking (133/207, 64%) and chronic bladder irritation (83/207, 40%). The majority (155/207, 75%) of patients had > pT2 disease. Mean tumor size was 5.6 ± 3.0 cm and 36/207 (17%) patients had lymph node positive disease. p16 immunohistochemistry was positive in 52/204 (25%) cases but high-risk HPV was identified with in situ hybridization in only 1 (0.5%) case. Tumor size, stage, number of lymph nodes removed, number of positive lymph nodes, lymphovascular invasion, perineural invasion, and positive margins each were associated with cancer-specific mortality when adjusted for demographic factors. A multivariate analysis of variable importance further revealed sex and race as important factors in predicting cancer-specific mortality. Conclusion: SCC of the bladder is an aggressive histologic subtype. Although bladder SCC can express p16, it is not typically associated with high-risk HPV, although rare cases can occur.
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