Spiritual well-being in lung cancer survivors

Marlene H. Frost, Paul J. Novotny, Mary E. Johnson, Matthew M. Clark, Jeff A. Sloan, Ping Yang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


Purpose: Spiritual well-being (SWB) among lung cancer survivors has not been well-delineated. Additionally, little is known about how SWB is affected over the trajectory of the disease process. The aims of this study were to examine the SWB of individuals with a diagnosis of lung cancer, to assess the stability of SWB over time, and to identify the factors associated with SWB. Methods: A prospective cohort of patients with lung cancer first seen at the Mayo Clinic over a 10-year period of time was included in this study. Study entry was at the time of diagnosis or referral to the Mayo Clinic, and participation involved annual survey using the Functional Assessment in Chronic Illness Therapy - Spiritual Well-being, Medical Outcome Short Form 8, and Quality of Life (QOL) Linear Analog Scale Assessment. Associations were explored using Fisher's exact test, chi-squared test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and Spearman correlations. Linear regression was used to explore multivariate relationships. Results: There were 1,578 participants over a 10-year period of time. Group SWB scores were relatively high and stable over a 10-year period of time (x̃=77.1-79.3, standard deviation = 14.47-18.46, possible scale of 0-100). However, individual scores varied widely across almost the entire scale (2.1-100) and revealed a chaotic trajectory for SWB. Males, current smokers, and those with higher pack-years experienced lower SWB compared to females, nonsmokers, and those with lower pack-years (p < 0.0001, 0.0455, and 0.0004, respectively). SWB was strongly associated with overall QOL. Conclusions: SWB is an individualistic experience that can change dramatically over time for cancer survivors. Ongoing assessments are important.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1939-1946
Number of pages8
JournalSupportive Care in Cancer
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2013


  • Lung cancer
  • Spiritual well-being
  • Spirituality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology


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