Spatial and time-course thermodynamics during pulmonary vein isolation using the second-generation cryoballoon in a canine in vivo model

Mitsuru Takami, Juna Misiri, H. Immo Lehmann, Kay D. Parker, Susan B. Johnson, Ray I. Sarmiento, Douglas L. Packer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

32 Scopus citations


Background - Thermodynamics in the left atrium-pulmonary vein (PV) junction, phrenic nerve, and esophagus during PV isolation (PVI) using the second-generation cryoballoon are not known. Methods and Results - Twenty dogs underwent PVI using second-generation cryoballoon. Ablations were performed for ≤2 deliveries based on PVI without a bonus freeze. Inner balloon, balloon surface, and tissue temperatures were monitored during cryoablation. The tissue thermocouples were placed on the epicardial surface of the left atrium-PV junction, as well as on the phrenic nerve and within the esophagus. A total of 259 cryoballoon and 229 tissue tissue thermocouples profiles during 53 cryoablations of 40 PVs were analyzed. Acutely, PVI was achieved in 36 of 40 PVs (90%). Conductive tissue cooling spread radially from the balloon-left atrium-PV contact point. The lowest tissue temperatures were dependent on the distance of the tissue thermocouples to the balloon surface (r=0.85; P<0.001). In addition, blood flow leaks around the balloon had a warming effect on the balloon and tissue temperature profiles. Chronic isolation (mean, 48±16 days) was achieved in 27 of 36 PVs (75%). In 8 of 9 acutely isolated but with chronic reconnection PVs, the blood flow leak location was concordant with chronic reconnection gap. Although only 1 esophageal ulcerated lesion was observed, neither phrenic nerve palsy nor severe PV stenosis was seen in any dogs. Conclusions - Variance in tissue thermodynamics during cryothermal ablation depends on the distance from balloon and peri-balloon blood flow leaks. This information may be useful for successful PVI without severe complications.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)186-192
Number of pages7
JournalCirculation: Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Feb 28 2015


  • atrial fibrillation
  • cryoballoon
  • pulmonary vein isolation
  • thermodynamics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Physiology (medical)


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