Smoking: Effects on multiple sclerosis susceptibility and disease progression

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

85 Scopus citations


Multiple sclerosis (MS) is associated with both genetic and environmental factors that influence disease susceptibility. Exposure to cigarette smoke is emerging as a viable environmental risk factor for MS that contributes to both increased disease susceptibility and more rapid disease advancement. The relative risk for MS development is approximately 1.5 for smokers compared with nonsmokers. Furthermore, there may be important interactions between smoking, an individual's genetic background, and other environmental risk exposures. This review summarizes the current evidence supporting the association of smoking with MS risk and disease course, with additional comments on causation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)13-22
Number of pages10
JournalTherapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2012


  • causality
  • disease progression
  • multiple sclerosis
  • risk factors
  • smoking

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology


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