Smokeless tobacco: An emerging addiction

Jon O. Ebbert, Alan B. Carr, Lowell C. Dale

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

18 Scopus citations


Smokeless tobacco use is prevalent in the United States and long-term use leads to significant morbidity. ST users are exposed to high levels of nicotine and are observed to graduate to higher nicotine-containing ST products, perpetuating nicotine dependence. Although few proved pharmacotherapies exist, available evidence suggests that bupropion SR might be effective for increasing ST abstinence rates. Behavioral therapies that include an oral examination may be especially effective for this population of tobacco users. Nicotine replacement therapy should be used to treat withdrawal symptoms in ST users attempting to stop.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1593-1605
Number of pages13
JournalMedical Clinics of North America
Issue number6
StatePublished - Nov 2004

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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