Smallpox vaccines for biodefense

Richard B. Kennedy, Inna Ovsyannikova, Gregory A. Poland

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

34 Scopus citations


Few diseases can match the enormous impact that smallpox has had on mankind. Its influence can be seen in the earliest recorded histories of ancient civilizations in Egypt and Mesopotamia. With fatality rates up to 30%, smallpox left its survivors with extensive scarring and other serious sequelae. It is estimated that smallpox killed 500 million people in the 19th and 20th centuries. Given the ongoing concerns regarding the use of variola as a biological weapon, this review will focus on the licensed vaccines as well as current research into next-generation vaccines to protect against smallpox and other poxviruses.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)D73-D79
Issue numberSUPPL. 4
StatePublished - Nov 5 2009


  • Biodefense
  • Smallpox vaccine
  • Vaccinia virus
  • Variola virus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Immunology and Microbiology(all)
  • veterinary(all)
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Infectious Diseases


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