Sex-Specific Multiparameter Blood Test for the Early Diagnosis of Alzheimer’s Disease

Hyung Joon Cho, Philip Schulz, Lalitha Venkataraman, Richard J. Caselli, Michael R. Sierks

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Blood-based biomarkers are needed for the early diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We analyzed longitudinal human plasma samples from AD and control cases to identify biomarkers for the early diagnosis of AD. Plasma samples were grouped based on clinical diagnosis at the time of collection: AD, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and pre-symptomatic (preMCI). Samples were analyzed by ELISA using a panel of reagents against nine different AD-related amyloid-β (Aβ), tau, or TDP-43 variants. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves of different biomarker panels for different diagnostic sample groups were determined. Analysis of all of the samples gave a sensitivity of 92% and specificity of 76% for the diagnosis of AD. Early-stage diagnosis of AD, utilizing only the preMCI and MCI samples, identified 88% of AD cases. Using sex-biased biomarker panels, early diagnosis of AD cases improved to 96%. Using the sex-biased panels, we also identified 6 of the 25 control group cases as being at high risk of AD, which is consistent with what is expected given the advanced age of the control cases. Specific AD-associated protein variants are effective blood-based biomarkers for the early diagnosis of AD. Notably, significant differences were observed in biomarker profiles for the early detection of male and female AD cases.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number15670
JournalInternational journal of molecular sciences
Issue number24
StatePublished - Dec 2022


  • Alzheimer’s disease
  • TDP-43
  • amyloid-β
  • blood-based diagnostic
  • longitudinal biomarker
  • protein variants
  • tau

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Catalysis
  • Molecular Biology
  • Spectroscopy
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry


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