Sex-based disparities in venous thromboembolism outcomes: A National Inpatient Sample (NIS)-based analysis

Ariela L. Marshall, Adam C. Bartley, Aneel A. Ashrani, Rajiv K. Pruthi, Urshila Durani, Wilson I. Gonsalves, Prashant Kapoor, Shahrukh K. Hashmi, Mustaqeem A. Siddiqui, Ronald S. Go

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6 Scopus citations


Venous thromboembolism (VTE) contributes to significant morbidity, mortality, and socioeconomic burden. There is a paucity of literature regarding sex-based sociodemographic differences in VTE presentation and short-term outcomes. We aimed to compare clinical outcomes between men and women hospitalized for VTE management. We performed a retrospective analysis using data from the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) database from 2012 to 2013. Inclusion criteria were age 18 years and older and a primary discharge diagnosis of VTE. Sociodemographic features and medical comorbidities were analyzed, as were hospital length of stay and in-hospital mortality rates. A total of 107,896 patients met the inclusion criteria; 53% were female. Median age was 65 years (interquartile range 51-77) and women were older than men (65 vs 62 years, p<0.001). There were significant differences between men and women with respect to race, primary insurance payer and medical comorbidities, and small differences with respect to VTE location. Female sex was associated with a small but significantly longer hospital length of stay (mean ratio 1.04, 95% CI 1.03-1.05, p<0.001) but no significant difference in in-hospital mortality (2.2% vs 2.1%, p=0.15). In a multivariate model, there was no significant difference between women and men with respect to hospital length of stay or in-hospital mortality. In conclusion, we used data from the NIS to study over 100,000 patients hospitalized for VTE, and identified several sex-based disparities in sociodemographic factors and location of VTE. However, in a multivariable analysis correcting for these factors, sex was not associated with significant differences in clinical outcomes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)121-127
Number of pages7
JournalVascular Medicine (United Kingdom)
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 1 2017


  • hospital length of stay
  • in-hospital mortality
  • sex disparities
  • venous thromboembolism (VTE)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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