Sex and Race Disparities in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: Unequal Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Use During Hospitalization

Sri Harsha Patlolla, Hartzell V. Schaff, Rick A. Nishimura, Jeffrey B. Geske, Shannon M. Dunlay, Steve R. Ommen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: To evaluate if there are sex and race disparities in use of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) devices for prevention of sudden cardiac death in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Patients and Methods: Using the National Inpatient Sample from January 2003 through December 2014, we identified all adult admissions with a diagnosis of HCM and an ICD implantation. Race was classified as White versus non-White. Trends in ICD use, predictors of ICD implantation, device-related complications, hospitalization costs, and lengths of stay were evaluated. Results: Among a total of 23,535 adult hospitalizations for HCM, ICD implantation was performed in 3954 (16.8%) admissions. Over the study period, there was an overall increasing trend in ICD use (11.6% in 2003 to 17.0% in 2014, P<.001). Compared with admissions not receiving an ICD, those receiving an ICD had shorter median lengths of in-hospital stay but higher hospitalization costs (P<.001). Compared with men and White race, female sex (odds ratio, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.66 to 0.78; P<.001) and non-White race (odds ratio, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.79 to 0.96; P<.001) were associated with lower adjusted odds of receiving an ICD. Women and non-White hospitalizations had higher rates of device related complications, longer lengths of in-hospital stay, and higher hospitalization costs compared with men and White race, respectively (all P<.01). Conclusion: Among HCM hospitalizations, ICD devices are underused in women and racial minorities independent of demographics, hospital characteristics, and comorbidities. Women and racial minorities also had higher rates of complications and greater resource use compared with men and those belonging to the White race, respectively.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)507-518
Number of pages12
JournalMayo Clinic proceedings
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2022

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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