Seizure Forecasting Using a Novel Sub-Scalp Ultra-Long Term EEG Monitoring System

Rachel E. Stirling, Matias I. Maturana, Philippa J. Karoly, Ewan S. Nurse, Kate McCutcheon, David B. Grayden, Steven G. Ringo, John M. Heasman, Rohan J. Hoare, Alan Lai, Wendyl D'Souza, Udaya Seneviratne, Linda Seiderer, Karen J. McLean, Kristian J. Bulluss, Michael Murphy, Benjamin H. Brinkmann, Mark P. Richardson, Dean R. Freestone, Mark J. Cook

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Accurate identification of seizure activity, both clinical and subclinical, has important implications in the management of epilepsy. Accurate recognition of seizure activity is essential for diagnostic, management and forecasting purposes, but patient-reported seizures have been shown to be unreliable. Earlier work has revealed accurate capture of electrographic seizures and forecasting is possible with an implantable intracranial device, but less invasive electroencephalography (EEG) recording systems would be optimal. Here, we present preliminary results of seizure detection and forecasting with a minimally invasive sub-scalp device that continuously records EEG. Five participants with refractory epilepsy who experience at least two clinically identifiable seizures monthly have been implanted with sub-scalp devices (Minder®), providing two channels of data from both hemispheres of the brain. Data is continuously captured via a behind-the-ear system, which also powers the device, and transferred wirelessly to a mobile phone, from where it is accessible remotely via cloud storage. EEG recordings from the sub-scalp device were compared to data recorded from a conventional system during a 1-week ambulatory video-EEG monitoring session. Suspect epileptiform activity (EA) was detected using machine learning algorithms and reviewed by trained neurophysiologists. Seizure forecasting was demonstrated retrospectively by utilizing cycles in EA and previous seizure times. The procedures and devices were well-tolerated and no significant complications have been reported. Seizures were accurately identified on the sub-scalp system, as visually confirmed by periods of concurrent conventional scalp EEG recordings. The data acquired also allowed seizure forecasting to be successfully undertaken. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC score) achieved (0.88), which is comparable to the best score in recent, state-of-the-art forecasting work using intracranial EEG.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number713794
JournalFrontiers in Neurology
StatePublished - Aug 23 2021


  • epilepsy
  • implantable device
  • seizure
  • seizure cycles
  • seizure forecasting
  • sub scalp

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology


Dive into the research topics of 'Seizure Forecasting Using a Novel Sub-Scalp Ultra-Long Term EEG Monitoring System'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this