Rifampin-based combination therapy is active in foreign-body osteomyelitis after prior rifampin monotherapy

Cassandra L. Brinkman, Suzannah M. Schmidt-Malan, Jayawant N. Mandrekar, Robin Patel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Staphylococcal prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) are associated with biofilm formation, making them difficult to treat; if managed with debridement and implant retention, rifampin-based therapy is usually employed. Rifampin resistance potentially challenges PJI treatment. In investigating the effects of rifampin monotherapy on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) foreignbody osteomyelitis in rats, we previously demonstrated that rifampin resistance was selected but that it disappeared 14 days following rifampin monotherapy (1) and that rifampin resistance occurred less frequently following two rounds than following one round of rifampin monotherapy (2). Here, we compared rifampin monotherapy followed by rifampin-vancomycin combination therapy to rifampinvancomycin combination therapy alone in experimental MRSA foreign-body osteomyelitis. Animals treated with rifampin monotherapy followed by rifampinvancomycin combination therapy had decreased quantities of bacteria 14 days following treatment completion (P = 0.034) compared to those in animals treated with combination therapy alone. Additionally, some isolates recovered from animals treated with combination therapy alone, although still susceptible to rifampin, had higher MIC, minimum biofilm-inhibitory concentration (MBIC), and minimum biofilm-bactericidal concentration (MBBC) values than those of the inoculating strain. This suggests that rifampin may remain a feasible treatment option in foreign-body-associated orthopedic infections following the selection of rifampin resistance.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere01822
JournalAntimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 1 2017


  • MRSA
  • Osteomyelitis
  • Prosthetic joint infection
  • Rifampin resistance

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmacology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases


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