Reintubation Summation Calculation: A Predictive Score for Extubation Failure in Critically Ill Patients

Vikas Bansal, Nathan J. Smischney, Rahul Kashyap, Zhuo Li, Alberto Marquez, Daniel A. Diedrich, Jason L. Siegel, Ayan Sen, Amanda D. Tomlinson, Carla P. Venegas-Borsellino, William David Freeman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: To derive and validate a multivariate risk score for the prediction of respiratory failure after extubation. Patients and methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study of adult patients admitted to the intensive care unit from January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2015, who received mechanical ventilation for ≥48 h. Extubation failure was defined as the need for reintubation within 72 h after extubation. Multivariate logistic regression model coefficient estimates generated the Re-Intubation Summation Calculation (RISC) score. Results: The 6,161 included patients were randomly divided into 2 sets: derivation (n = 3,080) and validation (n = 3,081). Predictors of extubation failure in the derivation set included body mass index <18.5 kg/m2 [odds ratio (OR), 1.91; 95% CI, 1.12–3.26; P = 0.02], threshold of Glasgow Coma Scale of at least 10 (OR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.31–2.16; P < 0.001), mean airway pressure at 1 min of spontaneous breathing trial <10 cmH2O (OR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.68–2.66; P < 0.001), fluid balance ≥1,500 mL 24 h preceding extubation (OR, 2.36; 95% CI, 1.87–2.96; P < 0.001), and total mechanical ventilation days ≥5 (OR, 3.94; 95% CI 3.04–5.11; P < 0.001). The C-index for the derivation and validation sets were 0.72 (95% CI, 0.70–0.75) and 0.72 (95% CI, 0.69–0.75). Multivariate logistic regression demonstrated that an increase of 1 in RISC score increased odds of extubation failure 1.6-fold (OR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.47–1.69; P < 0.001). Conclusion: RISC predicts extubation failure in mechanically ventilated patients in the intensive care unit using several clinically relevant variables available in the electronic medical record but requires a larger validation cohort before widespread clinical implementation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number789440
JournalFrontiers in Medicine
StatePublished - Feb 17 2022


  • critical care medicine
  • extubation failure
  • intensive care unit
  • mechanical ventilation
  • prediction scale
  • predictive modeling
  • reintubation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


Dive into the research topics of 'Reintubation Summation Calculation: A Predictive Score for Extubation Failure in Critically Ill Patients'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this