Race affects adverse outcomes of deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, and acute kidney injury in coronavirus disease 2019 hospitalized patients

Young Erben, Christopher P. Marquez, Mercedes Prudencio, Susana Fortich, Tania Gendron, Devang Sanghavi, La Tonya Hickson, Yupeng Li, Michael A. Edwards, Charles Ritchie, Pablo Moreno Franco, Leonard Petrucelli, James F. Meschia

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: The purpose of the present study was to explore the racial disparities in the incidence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism (PE), and acute kidney injury (AKI) in hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed of prospectively collected data of consecutive COVID-19 patients hospitalized from March 11, 2020 to May 27, 2021. The primary outcome measures were the incidence of DVT/PE and mortality. The secondary outcome measures included differences in the length of hospitalization, need for intensive care unit care, readmission, and AKI. Multivariable regression models were used to assess for independent predictors of the primary and secondary outcome measures. Results: The present study included 876 hospitalized patients with COVID-19. The mean age was 64.4 ± 16.2 years, and 355 were women (40.5%). Of the 876 patients, 694 (79.2%) had identified as White, 111 (12.7%) as Black/African American, 48 (5.5%) as Asian, and 23 (2.6%) as other. The overall incidence of DVT/PE was 8.7%. The DVT/PE incidence rates differed across the race groups and was highest for Black/African American patients (n = 18; 16.2%), followed by Asian patients (n = 5; 10.4%), White patients (n = 52; 7.5%), and other (n = 1; 4.4%; P =.03). All but one of the hospitalization outcomes examined demonstrated no differences according to race, including the hospitalization stay (P =.33), need for intensive care unit care (P =.20), readmission rates (P =.52), and hospital all-cause mortality (P =.29). The AKI incidence differed among races, affecting a higher proportion of Black/African American patients (P=.003). On multivariable regression analysis, Black/African American race (odds ratio [OR], 2.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0-4.0; P =.04) and higher D-dimer levels (OR, 1.1; 95% CI, 1.1-1.2; P <.0001) were predictors of DVT/PE. In addition, Black/African American race (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.4-3.7; P =.001), lower hemoglobin levels (OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.8-0.9; P ≤.0001), male sex (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.2-2.4; P =.005), hypertension (OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.4-3.1; P =.0005), and older age (OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.006-1.03; P =.003) were predictors of AKI. Conclusions: In our single-center case series, we found a higher incidence of DVT/PE and AKI among Black/African American patients with COVID-19. Black/African American race and D-dimer levels were independent predictors of DVT/PE, and Black/African American race, hemoglobin, and D-dimer levels were independent predictors of AKI.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)19-24.e3
JournalJournal of Vascular Surgery: Venous and Lymphatic Disorders
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2023


  • COVID-19
  • Deep vein thrombosis
  • Pulmonary embolism
  • Racial disparities
  • Venous thromboembolism

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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