Pulsatile hormone secretion: Mechanisms, significance and evaluation

J. D. Veldhuis

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

16 Scopus citations


Secretion of anterior and posterior pituitary hormones, adrenal glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids and catecholamines, gonadal sex steroids, parathormone, insulin and glucagon is pulsatile (burst-like or episodic). Neuronal inputs, cellular excitability and feedback with time delays constitute proximate mechanisms driving recurrent pulses. Both the amplitude and frequency of gonadotropin, thyrotropin, prolactin and sex-steroid pulses determine their mean concentrations. In contradistinction, primarily the amplitude of growth hormone, adrenocorticotropin, cortisol, parathormone and insulin pulses controls their average values. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone and growth-hormone pulses convey unique signaling information to target tissues. Evaluation of the mechanisms that govern pulsatile hormone secretion requires simultaneous quantification of the number, size and shape of secretory bursts, underlying nonpulsatile (basal) secretion and associated elimination kinetics. The necessary methodology is termed deconvolution analysis. More complex ensemble models are used to interlink neurohormone signals by estimating endogenous dose-response curves noninvasively. The approximate entropy statistic is a specific and sensitive measure of feedback fidelity within an ensemble system, Implications of neurohormone pulsatility include regulation of somatic growth, reproduction, muscle and bone mass, visceral fat burden, glucose metabolism, parturition, and sodium and water balance.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationUltradian Rhythms from Molecules to Mind
Subtitle of host publicationA New Vision of Life
PublisherSpringer Netherlands
Number of pages20
ISBN (Print)9781402083518
StatePublished - Dec 1 2008


  • Pulsatile
  • analysis
  • deconvolution
  • endocrine
  • hormone
  • model
  • secretion
  • signal

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology


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