Pulmonary Vein Stenosis—Balloon Angioplasty Versus Stenting: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Abdul Hakim Almakadma, Dhruv Sarma, Leslie Hassett, William Miranda, Mohamad Alkhouli, Guy S. Reeder, Thomas M. Munger, Douglas L. Packer, Trevor Simard, David R. Holmes

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Pulmonary vein stenosis (PVS) may arise from a variety of conditions and result in major morbidity and mortality. In some patients, pharmacologic therapy may help, but more often in advanced stages, mechanical treatment must be considered. Transcatheter approaches, both balloon angioplasty (BA) and stent implantation, have been applied. Although both are effective, they continue to be limited by restenosis. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid Embase, Ovid Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Ovid Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Scopus were searched for English-language studies in humans published between January 1, 2010, and August 2, 2021. Two independent reviewers screened for studies in which BA or stenting was performed for PVS with reporting of restenosis outcomes, and data were independently extracted. A systematic review was performed, and overall restenosis rates were reported across all 34 included studies. Meta-analysis was then performed using RevMan version 5.4, assessing rates of restenosis and restenosis requiring reintervention in those studies with available data reported. For restenosis rates, 4 studies treated a total of 340 patients with 579 pulmonary vein interventions (225 with BA and 354 with stenting, mean follow-up 13-69 months). Restenosis requiring repeat intervention was reported in 3 studies, including 301 patients with 495 pulmonary vein interventions (157 with BA and 338 with stenting). Compared with BA, stenting was associated with both a lower risk for restenosis (risk ratio: 0.36; 95% CI: 0.18-0.73; P = 0.005) and a lower risk for restenosis requiring reintervention (RR: 0.36; 95% CI: 0.15-0.86; P = 0.02). For PVS intervention, restenosis and reintervention rates may be improved by stent implantation compared with BA.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1323-1333
Number of pages11
JournalJACC: Clinical Electrophysiology
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 2022


  • balloon angiography
  • cardiac ablation
  • fibrosing mediastinitis
  • pulmonary vein stenosis
  • stenting

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Physiology (medical)


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