Prognostic Implications of Exercise-Induced Hypertension in Adults With Repaired Coarctation of Aorta

Alexander C. Egbe, William R. Miranda, C. Charles Jain, Barry A. Borlaug, Heidi M. Connolly

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between exercise-induced hypertension (EIH) and cardiovascular events, and to determine whether exercise blood pressure (BP) improved risk stratification in adults with repaired coarctation of aorta. Methods: Retrospective study of patients with repaired coarctation of aorta on antihypertensive therapy that underwent exercise testing and exercise test (2003-2019). BP was measured at rest in 3 different clinical settings and averaged to determine the resting BP. Indices of left ventricular function and afterload were obtained from the echocardiogram. EIH was defined as systolic BP >210 (males) or >190 (females) at peak exercise. Cardiovascular event was defined as atrial fibrillation, ventricular tachycardia, heart failure hospitalization, heart transplant, and cardiovascular death. Results: Of 327 patients (age 35±13 years), 116 (35%) had EIH. Although the resting BP was similar between patients with versus without EIH, the EIH group had higher pulsatile arterial load, more advanced left ventricular remodeling, and were less likely to be on angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker. EIH was associated with cardiovascular events (hazard ratio, 1.06 [95% CI, 1.02-1.08]) independent of resting systolic BP, and improved prognostic accuracy above resting systolic BP (C statistic, 0.671 [95% CI, 0.645-0.694] to 0.727 [95% CI, 0.709-0.750]; P=0.01). Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker was associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular events. Conclusions: EIH was associated with cardiovascular events independent of resting BP, and patients receiving angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker had lower risk of cardiovascular events. These data suggest that exercise BP could be used to assess adequacy of antihypertensive therapy, and to guide titration of antihypertensive therapy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2796-2805
Number of pages10
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 1 2022


  • exercise
  • hypertension
  • prognosis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine


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