Primary hepatic tumors with myxoid change: Morphologically unique hepatic adenomas and hepatocellular carcinomas

Safia N. Salaria, Rondell P. Graham, Shinichi Aishima, Taofic Mounajjed, Matthew M. Yeh, Michael S. Torbenson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Scopus citations


Mucin production in primary liver neoplasms is typically interpreted as evidence for biliary differentiation. However, we have observed benign and malignant liver tumors that have abundant extracellular myxoid/mucinous material, yet have only evidence of hepatocellular differentiation. To further characterize these unusual findings, 9 cases were identified and further studied. Four cases were hepatic adenomas, whereas 5 were hepatocellular carcinomas. Extracellular myxoid/mucinous material was diffuse in 7 cases and patchy in 2 cases. The extracellular myxoid/mucinous material was typically weakly mucicarmine positive (N=6) and Alcian blue positive (N=8). All tumors were well differentiated, and none had evidence for biliary differentiation by morphology or immunohistochemistry. The hepatic adenomas arose in nondiabetic and nonobese patients. Both the hepatic adenomas and the hepatocellular carcinomas were strongly and diffusely HepPar1 positive, CK19 negative, and showed loss of LFABP protein expression. These findings indicate that extracellular myxoid/mucinous material in isolation should not be interpreted as cholangiocarcinoma. Furthermore, the unique morphology, the clinical characteristics, and the immunophenotype results suggest that myxoid hepatic adenomas and hepatocellular carcinoma may be unique tumor variants.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)318-324
Number of pages7
JournalAmerican Journal of Surgical Pathology
Issue number3
StatePublished - Feb 28 2015


  • adenoma
  • hepatocellular carcinoma
  • hepatocellular neoplasms
  • mucinous
  • myxoid

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Anatomy
  • Surgery
  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine


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